The Blue Book


This guide is intended to help in the assessment of individuals in work or social situations. It represents large amounts of time and effort which have been applied to help categorize and understand human behavior. It is designed to be used without reference to any psychology texts.

In the guide, detailed descriptions of individuals with certain behavior types are described. What exactly is a behavior type? The term behavior type refers to the way in which an individual is perceived by others. He or she may be perceived a little bit differently by different people, but each individual will have a certain characteristic way of living, talking, breathing, working, and socializing, which is relatively consistent. Behavior type refers to the uniqueness of the individual; it refers to the idea that people are perceived as unique by the ways in which they express themselves.

Understand People

Using this guide can be a very helpful way to understand people. Although everyone has one's own way of understanding and categorizing people, the guide offers an additional advantage. Through systematic scientific study, it has been possible to characterize a large number of very different people in terms of seven basic behavior patterns. These behavior patterns can be useful in helping people understand and relate to the needs and goals of others. The guide is intended to clarify some vital and complex functions of human behavior. One important concept which will be employed in this guide is that an individual's behavior pattern is being considered primarily in the context of a work situation. The work situation is one of the most frequently misunderstood and understudied areas dealing with human behavior.

Interpersonal attraction between people who deal with each other will often times facilitate communication and increase productivity. Not everybody can like everyone, and personal conflicts over style and content are bound to occur. However, by understanding the behavior type of another individual, communication and general progress will be improved. The old adage, "He's not such a bad guy once you get to know him," is certainly true, and once you can predict a person's behavior it becomes much easier to interact with that person. If you know in advance that a certain approach that you are using will definitely elicit a specific positive response, and a different approach, a negative response, then you will feel greater self-confidence in making your proposal and more effectively using your time.

The usefulness of the guide is not limited to the work situation, though, and can be quite useful in outside social activities. Moreover, any person whose activities require people interaction can profit from reading the guide. It is written with the idea that human behavior is neither "good" nor "bad;" that interaction between two people does not necessarily mean approval or affiliation; but that since communication is taking place, it should be as efficient as possible.

Understand Human Behavior

Understanding human behavior is important because it is the combination of psychological tendencies which determine how individuals react to different situations. By reading and using this guide the reader may begin to recognize many of their own strengths and weaknesses. This may seem disconcerting at first, but it should be expected to happen. One of the most valuable products from the study of human behavior is this insight which can occur. Recognizing behavior characteristics in one's self or in close colleagues, friends, or family can be very helpful and interesting. The knowledge can be used in a constructive manner to help build and improve relationships, and to provide a means for understanding other people's idiosyncrasies. The guide is organized along seven specific types of behavior:

    1. Overachiever
    2. Entrepreneur
    3. Active
    4. Passive
    5. Aggressive
    6. Sensitized
    7. Compulsive

It also includes combinations of these types. The guide itself presents a detailed analysis covering several aspects of each type.


The Overachiever behavior type is evidenced by an attitude of self-control, self-restraint, and dedication to the ideal of constant improvement. The overachiever is constantly at the task of improving performance and sets perfectionistic standards both self-imposed and for associates to achieve in the work situation. The overachiever remains his cool under all circumstances and, in fact, may appear cold and even unapproachable at times. An attitude of, "If I can do it, surely you can at least try as hard as I do", will probably be displayed. The moderate overachiever will discipline internally as the situation warrants, but will also be able to relax and enjoy the surroundings more at social gatherings. The moderate overachiever is disciplined and self-regulated to a good degree but also demonstrates more sociability and more people skills than the high overachiever. The low overachiever is virtually "the prisoner of his own whims;" and may seem unreliable, not trustworthy, and incapable of maintaining long term relationships. "Here today, gone tomorrow," is the underlying orientation.


The Entrepreneur behavior type is also interested in self-development and advancement. However, the entrepreneur strives to achieve these aims by being individually competitive, risk prone, and adventuresome. This individual sees "business" as a natural domain and is capable of sizing up both people and deals equally well. This individual is clever, somewhat money motivated, and anxious to "get ahead." If the amount of overachiever in this behavior style is high, all the rules along the way to success will be obeyed. However, as the overachiever trait diminishes, corporate rules and guidelines tend to be interpreted loosely, rather than as they should. The moderate entrepreneur is more honest, if somewhat less manipulative in approach, and will maintain ideas within the law. The low entrepreneur is characterized by an absence of interest in monetary matters and is frequently victimized and misused by others far less scrupulous. In brief, this is a highly vulnerable individual who should be protected from activities requiring any horse trading ability or significant business acumen.

Active and Passive

The Active and Passive behavior types are frequently combined in an individual in a variety of degrees and will be discussed jointly in this introductory description. Although they are frequently found together, it is not uncommon to find an active without much of the passive traits; or a strict passive without significant amounts of the active. The active behavior type is readily recognized due to overall cheerfulness, enthusiasm for whatever activity engaged in, and genuine warmth for the people interacting with. Periods of reduced activity may be exhibited from time to time, but generally whatever energy is necessary will be marshalled to accomplish happily whatever task has been assigned. When the active individual lacks self-control, such enthusiasm is likely to become bothersome to the more serious members of the organization, and an untiring desire for fun and frivolity will discourage the most loyal friend. As the control diminishes, periods of moodiness and downheartedness will begin to show. Overall performance will be impaired by periods of both elation and real depression. These mood swings will become unpredictable and increasingly irksome to fellow employees.

When the two traits are present in a person's makeup to an equal degree, it results in an individual who is at times positive, optimistic, cheerful, and industrious, and at other times downhearted, moody, grouchy, and sullen. The actual amount of time spent in the two moods varies from one individual to the next so that all manner of combinations is possible. An apparently happy, outgoing, and cheerful person's mood may quickly change to conservatism and nitpicking, without apparent reason or cause. Frequently, the active-passive behavior type starts the day feeling tired, worn out, and barely able to meet the minimal requirements of the day, but after a cup of coffee and some self-prodding, becomes a veritable unstoppable bundle of energy, taking this responsibility, and looking into that project. The active-passive is really a cyclic behavior type pattern, with frequent changes in the type that presents itself at any given moment.


The Sensitized behavior type is characterized by a general pattern of seclusiveness, and shyness; this person is generally socially withdrawn. The sensitive person enjoys being alone and delights in solitude which allows time for daydreaming and creative thinking. Although the outward appearance may be as a classic wallflower (i.e., not interested in the traditional social activities requiring human interaction), this individual does possess a rich and varied imagination. This far-reaching mind allows considerable escape to faraway places, and if inclined, to come up with new and meaningful solutions to age-old company problems. Such people frequently appear docile and simple to the point where others might think that they can easily "bully" them into accepting a decision being forced on them. This is simply not the case, as they are quietly stubborn, and although they may give lip service to regulations they do not agree with, they will quietly go their own way and ignore the imposed rules. The moderately sensitized person is sociable and politely diplomatic in dealings. The individual with very little of the sensitized traits may be totally insensitive to the feelings, attitudes and wishes of other people, but the most obvious traits and typical manner of behavior will be determined by the other traits which are dominant in any of the behavior types.


The Aggressive behavior type can be socially domineering and tends to be a "take charge" sort of person. The aggressive individual wants to accomplish something and generally sees him/her self as the person to lead the activity. This person is determined, persevering, and will stick to a task after others have given up on it as hopeless. An aggressive person can be charismatic and inspire deep loyalty in others and is frequently an effective leader because a stand will be taken and held to. Others rely on an intuitive sense of direction and task dedication. The aggressive individual is frequently is a team player, but prefers to be the captain.

The person possessing a moderate or lesser degree of this trait is not necessarily a "follower" and may, in fact, be a very effective leader, although with a much different style. This individual is not overly pushy, shovey or argumentative and accomplishes goals with people rather than over them. In positions of leadership the difference between the strong and moderate aggressive may be conceptualized in terms of leading by coercion on the one hand and team incentive on the other. The person with a low amount of the aggressive trait generally shows little interest in positions requiring strong managerial needs. Such people tend to avoid arguments, are not especially status conscious, and would rather switch than fight.


The Compulsive behavior type is most easily understood in terms of a desire to work on projects, tasks, and assignments in a detailed and methodical fashion. Delight is taken in planning ahead, arranging thoughts, and then accepting the complete responsibility for assignments. The compulsive person prefers to devote attention to one task and then work through the many duties in a systematic fashion. Due to this high degree of task orientation, this individual should not be interrupted and may appear grouchy and angry if unnecessarily disturbed while performing a task. Pride is taken in accomplishing whatever is expected in an on-time fashion, and this then serves as a reward, leading to accepting additional responsibilities.

People with a high amount of the compulsive trait are rare in our society. Most people rate average in content of this factor. The average compulsive person is generally quite sufficient for most administrative positions. The same general traits are possessed although not in the same degree as the high compulsive. The low compulsive person typically dislikes detailed work and lacks any sense of organization about the work. Administrative tasks are delegated as a rule, and the individual spends significant amounts of time redoing work or defining a system to work from. If the overachiever component of the behavior type is high, an individual can compensate for the low compulsiveness with the attitude that, "I hate the details, but I force myself to do them."

Using Knowledge of Behavior Types in the Work Place

The chapters that follow will review the above mentioned behavior types as single behavior types with distinctive traits: overachiever, entrepreneur, active/passive, sensitized, aggressive, and compulsive. We then meet combinations of these behavior styles, such as overachiever-entrepreneur, aggressive-compulsive, etc. Most individuals exhibit some combination of these behavior types.

Enumerated are those characteristics that are most noticeable and which the reader will, no doubt, recognize in him/her-self and friends and family. This list gives the reader an understanding of each personality type.

Using what we have learned about behavior types, we will apply this information to the work place. Each chapter will highlight a particular personality type's distinctive traits, central motivation, preferred work environment, and index of frustration. Once an employer better understands each employee, insights will develop as to how best to approach each individual in a unique fashion.

Each chapter, then, contains a supervisory approach, plus four additional techniques for interaction: an approach when motivating, when correcting, to foster cooperation and when teaching.

Central Motivation/Preferred Work Environment

Each chapter deals with the individual's Central Motivation or drive. This is the basic need that dictates behavior. All other motivation must spring from this need. Once a supervisor has taken the time to know his/her employees well, he/she will be able to motivate them most effectively. We also learn in what type of position the individual is most comfortable. As each section builds on the last we learn that the Preferred Work Environment is a logical progression from what we have learned about the individual's Distinctive Traits and Central Motivation. We learn where and in what capacity they function most effectively.

Index of Frustration

Next we learn of the individual's Index Of Frustration. These are situations in which the individual does not cope well, and in what fashion individual danger signs manifest themselves. This section allows an employer to recognize when an employee is becoming bored, restless or frustrated with current duties and when it is time for a change. It also calls attention to behaviors in an individual that must be monitored or discouraged. The next section addresses this area.

Supervisor Approaches

Supervisory Approaches teaches the employer, generally, how closely the employee has to be watched to be effective and what the employee can be entrusted to achieve independently.

Approaches When Motivating

Approaches When Motivating takes the role of the employer or supervisor one step further by actually teaching how to motivate employees, and what incentives and encouragement will be best responded to. By showing the employer how to reinforce employees, this section also teaches how to win their devotion.

Approaches When Correcting

Another sensitive area is how to correct an employee and to ensure that the behavior is not repeated. The Approaches When Correcting section handles this area quite thoroughly. The point is to let the employee know of your displeasure without offending or destroying confidence.

Approaches to Foster Cooperation

The Approaches To Foster Cooperation section explores the means by which the employee can be encouraged to accept a proposal of one kind or another. This section explains what will inspire an employee to get involved and enthusiastic about a project, thereby nipping any problem or lack of interest in the bud.

Approaches When Teaching

The Approaches When Teaching section is probably the most valuable to employers as many times this becomes a most frustrating problem. It can be very difficult to communicate instructions or a process in a clear concise manner, but it is also difficult to present the information in a way which will be understood by each and every individual listening. This section tackles this problem by showing the employer what the individual will respond negatively to and what types of information will be tuned out.


In summary, an individual's behavior type refers to a set of psychological characteristics. It refers to a number of different behaviors from which an insight can be made. A behavior type is always inferred from observable behavior.

The ability to perceive individual character traits and overall behavior patterns in a short time is not an easy task. The reason for this is simple: people generally act in a culturally approved manner and tend to inhibit or restrain their feelings and behavior in the short run. The real behavior type may not become obvious until a stressful situation occurs, at which time a real behavior pattern will come out. People maintain this pretense, not so much from a desire to deceive as from a desire to do the expected. The guide is designed to assist you in recognizing and dealing with different behavior types as accurately as possible.

The guide provides a supervisor or employer with a multitude of tools with which to carefully build an understanding of individual personality types.